Classification of threats Birdlife International

Factor of negatif effect BiotopeEffectsBirds which are most affected by the factor
Natural negative impact factors
droughteverywherefiresall species
extremely low winter temperatures everywherekill of wintering birds, loss of feeds (murine rodents, frogs, etc.)birds of prey, owls, storks
floodsfloodplain meadows, swamplands destruction of nests by floods semi-aquatic birds, and birds nesting on lowland swamps – aquatic warbler, etc.
incessant rainseverywheredeath ofnestlings by exposuregrouses and other precocial birds
windbreaksforestsbirds of prey, owls, storks
carnivoreseverywhereloss of nests and nestlingsall species
Anthropogenic negative impact factors
draining meliorationlowland and highland swamps, floodplain meadows, swampy forestsdestruction of habitats, derogation of nutritive baseaquatic warbler, greater spotted eagle, eagle owl, sandpipers, ducks, grey goose, Eurasian bittern and little bittern, three-toed woodpecker and many others.
peat productionswamplands, mostly - highlands destruction of habitats wood grouse, blackcock, white grouse, snake eagle, golden eagle, curlew, golden plover and other sandpipers
overgrowing of open areaslowland swamps and meadows change of habitataquatic warbler, all sandpipers
ploughing upmeadows, including islands in swamplands destruction of habitatsEurasian curlew, greenshank, other birds nesting on meadows
full deforestationforestsdestruction of habitatsall forest species, birds of prey
cutting of old and hollow treesforestsdestruction of nesting sites birds of prey, owls, black storks, all woodpeckers, flycatchers and other cavity nesters
instability of water level (abrupt fluctuations) due to the man-made regulationfloodplain swamps and meadows inundation of nests, derogation of nutritive base on drying swamps and shallow watersall species of floodplain meadows and swamps, including the aquatic warbler, Eurasian bittern, etc.
urbanization (buildings), creation of transport and engineering communicationseverywheredestruction of habitatsall species
burning out of grassy verdures meadows, swamps, waters (reedbeds)temporary significant degradation of habitat, loss of nests all species of open areas, Eurasian bittern, grey goose, etc.
excessive grazing (overgrazing)meadowsloss of nests, degradation of habitatlandrail, sandpipers, terns, passerines and other meadow nesters
grazing or haymowing decrease meadowsdegradation of habitatsandpipers
inopportune haymowing (in nesting period)meadows, lowland swampsloss of nests, degradation of habitatlandrail, sandpipers, Montagu`s harrier and hen harrier and other meadow nesters
excessive recreation loading (including amateur fishing)banks, shores, meadows, forests disturbance, trampling down, deterioration of verdure, etc.kingfisher, oyster catcher, other birds nesting of banks and shores and others.
unreasonable hunting all types of biotopeskill of birdswood grouse, blackcock, grey grouse, ducks, grey goose, etc.
poachingall types of biotopeskill of birdsbirds of prey, owls, wood grouse and all others
unreasonable fishingwaterskill of birds in fishing nets, disturbanceblack-throated loon, grebe and other swimming birds
recreation, tourismall types of biotopesdisturbancewhite-tailed eagle, spotted eagles, owls and all species
poluttion with toxic wastes, pesticides, oil products, etc.all biotopesdeath by contamination or dirtying of plumage, degradation of reproduction functions, derogation of nutritive base, etc.all species
occasional losses because of human activity all biotopesdeath on roads, high-voltage lines and other man-made constructions all species